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Wire Terminology Troubleshooting Electronic Sensors Environmental Protection Classifications Glossary




Wire Terminology

Flat Wire:

SPT - Stranded, Parallel, Thermoplastic
This is always followed by a -1, -2 or -3, signifying insulation thickness for different applications.

HPN - Heater, Parallel, Neoprene
Required for heater-type applications, such as irons, toasters, etc.

Note: We can run some 20 AWG, but mostly we run 18, 16 and 14 AWG, 2 or 3 conductors.
"P" is always Parallel Wire (Flat).


Jacketed Wire:

S - Stranded (or Service Wire)
J - Junior Service (300 Volt). If no "J" is in the wire type, then it is a hard service (600 Volt).
T - Thermoplastic. If no "T" is in the wire type, then it has a rubber jacket.
O - Oil-Resistant Compound
W - Weather-Resistant Compound
V - Vacuum - as in vacuum cleaner. This is a small O.D. Jacketed wire, very flexible and initially used
for vacuum cleaners but now used on many different types of products. Available only in 18 AWG.

Examples:

SV - Stranded Vacuum Rubber Jacketed (NO "T")
SJT - Stranded Junior Thermoplastic
SJTOW - Stranded Junior Thermoplastic, Oil and Weather resistant for UL and CSA.



Troubleshooting Electronic Sensors

PROBLEM: LED LIGHTS BUT NO OUTPUT
Cause – Improper hook-up (sinking vs. sourcing), could cause damage to the output transistor.
Solution – Refer to installation guide or hook-up diagram for proper wiring.

Cause – Bad connection, loose wiring.
Solution – Check wire connections to from the output lead to the load. A multimeter may be required.

Cause – Piston speed is too quick for PLC to respond quickly enough to detect sensor output.
Solution – Slow cylinder speed if possible.
Solution – Stack two magnets next to each other, this will tend to increase the length of time when the sensor is ON.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which has a higher gauss rating.


PROBLEM: MULTIPLE SWITCHING
Cause – Excessive magnet strength.
Solution – Move sensor away from the sensing surface if possible using a magnetically non-conductive material.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which has a lower gauss rating.
Solution – Reduce the cross-sectional area of the magnet by increasing the ID.

Cause – Improper magnet polarity.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which has the proper magnet orientation.


PROBLEM: INCONSISTENT SWITCHING
Cause – Weak magnet.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which has a higher gauss rating.

Cause – Poor magnet quality or magnet degrades after a period of time.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which is of better quality.
Solution – Stack two magnets next to each other to improve magnet consistency. This will also tend to increase the length of time when the sensor is ON.

Cause – Piston speed is too quick for sensor to respond, or PLC does not respond quickly enough to detect sensor output.
Solution – Slow cylinder speed if possible.
Solution – Stack two magnets next to each other, this will tend to increase the length of time when the sensor is ON.
Solution – Replace the magnet with one which has a higher gauss rating.



Environmental Protection Classifications

INDEX OF PROTECTION (IP) RATINGS
(International Electrotechnical Commission Index of Protection)
PROTECTION AGAINST SOLID OBJECTS - FIRST DIGIT
0 - No Protection
1 - Protected from solid objects up to 50mm (e.g. accidental touch by hands)
2 - Protected from solid objects up to 12mm (e.g. accidental touch fingers)
3 - Protected from solid objects larger than 2.5mm (e.g. tools and small wires)
4 - Protected from solid objects larger than 1mm (e.g. small wires)
5 - Protected from dust; limited entrance (no harmful deposit)
6 - Totally protected from dust


PROTECTION AGAINST LIQUIDS - SECOND DIGIT
0 - No Protection
1 - Protected from vertically falling drops of water (e.g. condensation)
2 - Protected from direct sprays of water up to 15° from vertical
3 - Protected from direct sprays of water up to 60° from vertical
4 - Protected from water sprayed from all directions; Limited entrance allowed
5 - Protected from low pressure jets of water from all directions; limited entrance allowed
6 - Protected from strong jets of water; limited entrance allowed (e.g. for use on ship decks)
7 - Protected from the effects of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m for 30 minutes
8 - Protected from extended periods of immersion under pressure

EXAMPLE - IP67
6 - Totally protected from dust
7 - Protected from the effects of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m for 30 minutes


NEMA STANDARDS
(National Electrical Manufactures Association)
ENCLOSURE TYPES FOR NON-HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
TYPE 1 - GENERAL PURPOSE
Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment or locations where unusual service conditions do not exist.

TYPE 2 - DRIP TIGHT
Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling water and dirt.

TYPE 3 - WEATHERPROOF (Weather Resistant)
Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust, rain and sleet; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure.

TYPE 3R - RAINTIGHT
Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against falling rain and sleet; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure.

TYPE 4 - WATERTIGHT
Enclosures are intended for indoors and outdoors use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water and hose-directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure.

TYPE 4X - WATERTIGHT
Enclosures are intended for indoors and outdoors use primarily to provide a degree of protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water and hose-directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure.

TYPE 5 - No NEMA equivalent.

TYPE 6 - SUBMERSIBLE
Enclosures are intended for indoors and outdoors where occasional submersion is encountered.

TYPE 12 - INDUSTRIAL USE
Enclosures are intended for indoor and outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.

TYPE 13 - DUSTPROOF
Enclosures are intended for indoor and outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust spraying of water, oil, and non-corrosive coolant.




AC

Acronym for Alternating Current.

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AMP (A)

Abbreviation of Ampere, a unit of measure for electrical current.

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AWG

American Wire Gage is a numerical standard used to refer to the diameter cross sectional area of a wire. Smaller numbers refer to larger cross sectional areas.

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Bridge Rectifier

This is an electrical device made up of four diodes, which perform the function of full wave rectification (converts the full AC sine wave to DC).

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Capacitor

This is an electronic device used to store an electric charge or to allow varying current to flow. The ideal capacitor will not allow steady state or DC current to flow. The capacitor is used in many applications including transient suppression, electrical noise filtering, timing circuits, etc.

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Conductor

This is a material that can easily conduct (flow) electrical current. Metals are considered to be good conductors of electricity.

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Current Surge

This is a short term (transient) condition causing a larger than normal amount of current to flow through a conductor. A current surge can often cause damage to an electrical device that is not properly protected.

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DC

Acronym for Direct Current.

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DIN

This is an acronym used for the Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Standardization Institute).

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DIN 43650

A German standard stating the characteristics and requirements of connectors for magnetic valves used in hydraulics and pneumatics.

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Diode

This is a solid state electronic component that allows current to flow in only one direction, similar to a check valve used in hydraulic or pneumatic applications. The diode is used in applications including transient suppression, power supply circuits etc.

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Electronic Magnetic Sensor

This is a solid state device used to sense a magnetic field. Canfield Connector uses magneto-resistive sensors on all electronic magnetic sensors.

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Gauss (Ga)

Unit of measure for magnetic flux density.

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Ground

This term is used to define an electrical connection normally common to the chassis of a device or earth ground.

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Hertz (Hz)

The unit of measure for frequency in cycles per second.

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IP65

An environmental protection rating of enclosures according to the German Standard DIN 40050.

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ISO

This is an acronym used for the International Standards Organization.

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LED

An acronym for Light Emitting Diode. A solid state diode which emits light when current passes through it in the proper direction.

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MOV

An acronym for Metal Oxide Varistor. A solid state device used to suppress voltage surges/spikes.

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NEMA

An acronym for National Electric Manufacturers Association.

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Nitrile (Buna)

This is a rubber-like man-made material used extensively in gasket and sealing applications.

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Normally Closed

The state of the output or switch is ON with no external influence.

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Normally Open

The state of the output or switch is OFF with no external influence.

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NPN (Sinking)

Acronym used to describe the polarization of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). Also associated with a sinking output.

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Opto-Coupled

Refers to a technique used to optically activate (turn on) an electronic device, usually a transistor or triac, and physically separate two sides of a circuit. This action is similar to a solenoid relay. The typical opto-coupler incorporates an LED (light emitting diode) as the actuating device.

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Parallel Magnet Polarity

The term used to describe the polar orientation of the piston magnet with respect to the cylinder stroke. In this case, the north and south poles are oriented in the same direction parallel to the cylinder stroke.

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Perpendicular Magnet Polarity

The term used to describe the polar orientation of the piston magnet with respect to the cylinder stroke. In this case, the north and south poles are oriented perpendicular to the cylinder stroke.

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PNP (Sourcing)

Acronym used to describe the polarization of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). Also associated with a sourcing output.

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Rectification

This is a term used to describe an electrical process which converts AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current).

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Reed Switch

This is a miniature mechanical switch that changes state when a magnetic field is applied.

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Resistor

This is an electronic device that resists the flow of current. Higher resistor Ohm values offer more resistance to the flow of current.

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Silicone

This is a rubber-like man-made material used extensively in gasket and sealing applications. It is very resistant to a wide range of chemicals including oils and solvents, and has a very wide temperature range.

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Sinking

The term is used here to describe the way a switch is connected in the circuit. If the switch completes the electrical circuit by connecting the load to ground/(-), it is considered to be sinking the load. In a solid state device this is equivalent to a NPN ouput.

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Solid State

This is a term often used to describe an electronic device made up of solid components (no moving parts).

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Sourcing

The term is used here to describe the way a switch is connected in the circuit. If the switch completes the electrical circuit by connecting the load to the positive/(+), it is considered to be sourcing the load. In a solid state device this is equivalent to a PNP output.

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SPDT

Acronym used for Single Pole Double Throw switches.

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SPST

Acronym used for Single Pole Single Throw switches.

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Transistor

This is a solid state device used in electronic circuits. It is often used in switching or amplifier applications.

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Triac

This is a solid state device often used to switch AC voltage/current.

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Volt (V)

The unit of measure for electrical potential.

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Voltage Spike

This is a short term (transient) condition causing a larger than normal amount of voltage to be applied to a circuit. Voltage spikes can often cause damage to an electric device that is not properly protected.

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Watt (W)

The unit of measure for electrical power.

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